Patients with acute kidney disease (also known as renal failure, kidney failure or acute kidney injury) require immediate medical attention to potentially reverse the problem and restore their kidneys’ ability to filter waste products from the blood. Depending on its cause, the condition may arise over a span of several days or even just a few hours, with common symptoms including swelling in the legs and feet (due to fluid retention), reduced urinary output, nausea and mental disorientation. However, not all patients who are experiencing acute kidney failure will exhibit symptoms. Reasons for acute kidney failure range from trauma to the kidneys to blockage of the ureters that drain urine from the kidneys, and any underlying illness that slows the flow of blood to the kidneys. Through urine, blood and imaging tests, doctors can determine the cause of the problem and devise an appropriate plan of care for young patients that may include medications, introduction of intravenous fluids and dialysis treatments, followed by nutritional changes to help the patient recover.